Weaving

Pakistan ranks as one of the major woven fabrics suppliers
by: Dr. Noor Ahmed Memon

Textile sector is the backbone of Pakistan’s economy and contributes significantly to the export sector. Pakistan is the fourth largest producer of cotton and third largest consumer. It contributes 8.5% to the GDP and employs 38% of the workforce in the manufacturing sector. Its share to the total exports is about 60%. It is ranked 12th in the global textile exports. Despite facing numerous challenges due to persistent power crisis, high cost of doing business, poor law and order situation and host of other issues, Pakistan’s textile exports managed to grow by 28% during the year 2010-11 as against the exports of last year.

At present an unorganized part of weaving sector is producting comparatively low value added grey cloth. The power loom sector employs poor technology; it faces scarcity of quality yarn and lacks institutional financing for its development. The growth record of Pakistan's textile industry shows a reverse trend, especially in the weaving capacity of the mill sector, in which the installed capacity of looms shrunk from 26,000 in 1978-79 to only 8,000 in 2010-11. The organized sector seemingly made a shift towards cotton spinning rather than make efforts to develop and modernize the weaving sector.

The non-mill or the power loom sector has registered a phenomenal growth over the last two decades. Periodical export related growth has also helped the power loom sector to establish itself. The number of looms in the non-mill sector cannot be ascertained precisely in the absence of any census. The number of operating looms keeps on fluctuating, consumption of yarn and production of cloth by this sector is still more difficult to calculate. According to Textile Commissioner Organization, it has been estimated that the number of power looms working on cotton/blended yarn vary from 175,000 to 250,000 in which shuttle less looms account for about 15%-20% of the total.

Production of cloth: Total production of cloth (Mill and Non-mill sector) increased from 8,524 million sq. meters in 2005-06 to 9,035 million sq. meters in 2010-11. The non-mill loom sector accounts more than 90% of the total fabric production. As a result the non-mill sector weaving capacity continues to occupy predominant position. The setting up of shuttle-less machines in this sector has resulted in high growth in fabric production.

At present, the shuttleless weaving is believed to be the largest consumer of cotton yarn in Pakistan. The non-mill weaving sector, although quite large, contributes to the exports by way of the production of low quality sheeting fabrics. Production of cloth mill/non-mill sector is given in Table-1.

Table 1:- Production, of cloth
(In Million Sq. Mtrs)

Year Mill Sector Non-Mill Sector Total Production
1971-72 628.19 722.48 1350.67
1979-80 342.33 1377.69 1720.02
1989-90 294.84 2439.93 2734.77
2000-01 490.16 5101.24 5591.40
2001-02 568.43 5084.66 5653.09
2002-03 582.14 5068.38 5650.52
2003-04 683.39 5015.90 6833.12
2004-05 924.67 5556.00 6480.67
2005-06 915.26 7609.00 8524.26
2006-07 1012.92 7682.00 8694.92
2007-08 1016.39 7889.05 9005.44
2008-09 1019.68 7995.57 9015.26
2009-10 1009.00 8003.50 9012.50
2010-11 1020.00 8015.35 9035.35
Source: Source: (i) All Pakistan Textile Mills Association (APTMA)
                        (ii) Federal Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan.

Import of machinery: At present Pakistan's textile sector has made considerable advances in production capacity and capability past few years. During the past five years remarkable progress of the power looms sector was made in the country. The setting up off shuttle-less machines has resulted in high growth in fabric production.

Import of textile weaving machines increased from Rs 4.57 billion in 2009-10 to Rs 8.11 billion in 2010-11, thus showing an increase of 77%. Import of textile weaving machines into Pakistan is given in Table-2.

Table 2 : Import of weaving machines
                                                                                                          Quantity : Number
                                                                                                         Value : Rs Million

Machines 2010-2011 2009-2010
Quantity Value Quantity Value
 Weaving Machines (Width less than 30 cm) 389 149.99 195 77.95
 Power looms (Width exceeding 30 cm) 109 56.07 27 13.66
 Other Weaving Machines (Looms) 1,483 2,076.05 920 786.22
 Weaving Machines (Shuttleless) 2,757 5,831.65 3,143 3,689.04
 Total 4738 8113.76 4285 4575.87
 Source: Trade Development Authority of Pakistan.

Export of fabrics: The demand for textiles and clothing in the world is around $18 trillion, which is likely to be increased by 6.5% per annum. Pakistan has emerged as one of the major cotton textile product suppliers in the world market, with a share of world yarn trade of about 30% and cotton fabric about 8%, having total export of more than $14 billion which is 60% of the country’s total exports during 2010-11. Export of cotton fabrics is given in Table-3.

Table 3: Export of cotton fabrics

Year Quantity Value Unit Value
(000 Sq. Mtrs.) (000 US $) ($/ Sq. Mtr)
2000-01 1,735,824 1,035,043 0.60
2001-02 1,957,353 1,132,370 0.58
2002-03 2,036,321 1,345,650 0.66
2003-04 2,409,407 1,711,492 0.71
2004-05 2,399,458 1,862,886 0.78
2005-06 2,633,982 2,108,183 0.80
2006-07 2,211,843 2,026,547 0.92
2007-08 1,920,268 2,010,611 0.99
2008-09 1,882,240 1,955,289 1.02
2009-10 1,753,116 1,800,055 1.03
2010-11 2,297,492 2,623,195 1.14
Source: Trade Development Authority of Pakistan.

The major importing countries of cotton fabrics were Turkey, Bangladesh, Italy, Germany, USA, China, Korea, Brazil, Indonesia, UK and Singapore. It is interesting to note that fabric exports increased in many countries, where Pakistan lost its yarn market. The country lost fabric markets in the US, Sri Lanka, Spain, Hong Kong, India and Vietnam. Major markets for Pakistan's fabric are Turkey, Italy, Bangladesh, USA, Sri Lanka, Germany and Belgium. Country wise export of cotton fabrics is given in Table-4.

Table 4: Country-wise export of cotton fabrics
                                                                                        
(Value: $ 000 )

Country 2010-11 2009-2010 2008-2009
 Turkey 405,412 237,780 201,592
 Bangladesh 282,561 199,756 176,396
 Italy 204,042 138,591 152,590
 Sri Lanka 111,444 92,269 78,410
 U.S.A 137,339 82,255 97,417
 China 125,376 77,474 79,418
 Germany 125,376 73,381 72,964
 Spain 98,613 69,926 58,978
 Belgium 70,309 50,528 55,841
 UK 69,057 48,141 46,064
 Egypt 52,585 43,094 43,720
 South Africa 68,627 37,153 44,504
 Russian Federation 51,428 36,318 52,405
 India 19,440 33,362 26,510
 The Netherlands 63,476 32,856 31,429
 Other Countries 761,266 547,171 737,051
 Total 2,623,195 1,800,055 1,955,289
 Source: Federal Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan.

Export of denim fabrics: Denim is one of the key apparel sectors and the driving force behind the apparel exports of the country. In this scenario Pakistan has emerged as a key supplier of this highly demanded fabric due to the competitive prices.

In the last decade weaving of denim fabrics has undergone dramatic changes with a view to improving the comfort level and aesthetic aspects. Export of cotton denim fabrics from Pakistan increased from 118 million sq meters worth Rs 11.71 billion in 2008-09 to 263 million sq meters worth Rs 26.77 billion in 2010-11, thus showing an average increase of 43% per annum in terms of value. Exports of denim fabrics from Pakistan are given in Table-5.

Table 5: Export of cotton Denim fabrics

Year Quantity
(000 Sq m)
Value
(Rs Million)
2005-06 44,732 4,376
2006-07 58,093 5,5593
2007-08 84,066 8,040
2008-09 117,961 11,707
2009-10 228,879 20,490
2010-11 263,263 26,771
Source: Federal Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan

Pakistan has progressively built a strong denim industry over the years. At present top global denim fabric exporting country was China, followed by Hong Kong, Turkey, Italy, Pakistan, the USA, India, Japan, Spain and Brazil. Together, these countries accounted for as much as 83% of world denim fabric exports.  Country wise export of cotton denim fabrics is given in Table-6.

Table 6: Country-wise Export of Cotton Denim Fabrics
                                                                                                      Quantity: (000 Sq. Meters)
                                                                                          Value (Rs Million)

Country 2009-2010 2010-2011
Quantity Value Quantity Value
 Bangladesh 71,474 6,402 45,431 6,238
 Egypt 7,222 1,587 10,262 1,108
 Turkey 61,361 5,385 126,331 11,384
 Hong Kong 4,306 381 3,364 302
 India 4,084 338 5,374 265
 Italy 9,098 812 11,639 1,116
 Jordan 551 51 4,628 46
 Cambodia 2,575 236 4,592 402
 Lesotho 2,457 244 3,673 358
 Madagascar 557 50 1,322 134
 Nicaragua 1,199 116 1,037 101
 Peru 2,523 240 4,884 524
 Spain 2,556 236 2,583 258
 Sri Lanka 1,094 934 8,426 902
 U.A.E 1,469 148 2,777 274
 All Other 149,647 9,732 26,940 3,359
 Total 22,879 20,490 263,263 26,771
 Source: Federal Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan.

 

 

 
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